from policies to building: public housing in canada\'s eastern arctic 1950s to 1980s.

by:COSCO     2019-08-24
Abstract: In the years after World War II, the Canadian government participated in the construction of the Indian people in the eastern Arctic, living in poor conditions.
What is achieved throughout the region is the product of values, norms and aspirations of the South.
These prototypes are not suitable for the local climate and do not support land --Based on activities.
In addition, due to the lack of consideration of traditional residential culture, the provision of public housing has revolutionized the lifestyle of indigenous residents.
This article reviews the design of public housing in the Nunavut area between 1950 and 1980.
The following discussion explores the historical evolution of the well
In good faith, but culturally inappropriate housing affects the material and cultural well-being of the Nordic community.
Before discussing the prototype of public housing delivered, a brief review of the traditional residential culture of the Inuit community was given.
Key words: public housing, Inuit, Arctic culture restored public complaints about Eastern Canada.
According to avant-garde cette, the Inuit les de la area has the une mode, the base of the devie nomade, the sur la chasse, and the la p lecheet la recolte des plantesaborients.
Cependant suit a la guerre deuxieme mondiaie de scommunautes sedentaires ont pris d\'arceque was born.
Services include services such as government, education and economy, as well as Inuit communities.
Vegetarian cesinterments important de la part des gouverents territoriauxfederaux, fait accompli de l\'onavut area factà une crise du logement hotel public.
Conclusion of chaebol;
Morality, Ethics.
Introduction: the traditional Inuit residential culture in the first half of the 20 th century, permanent settlements began to take root in the Arctic region of eastern Canada (Figure 1).
Originally inhabited by the RCMP, religious missionaries and fur in Hudson Bay
As more and more Inuit families leave the land to live permanently in the newly formed communities, the settlements begin to expand.
Although settlements provide important opportunities for employment through education, health care and in some casesNomadic and self
Enough people living permanently in established communities will have an irrevocable impact on the local population.
Before settlement, half
Nomadic life
The traditional culture of Inuit people is reflected in traditional houses.
Archaeological ancestors of Inuit-
The culture of the far north,-and their semi-
Underground houses constructed using the whale\'s lower jaw bones confirm the deep connection with the land.
These structures, thanks to the inherent strength and strength of whale bones, can serve as a shelter for winter climate.
Changes in cladding materials including turf, wood, stone and animal skins reflect local resources.
Further protection was obtained by partially digging the ground;
Added raisedplatforms to provide warm areas for sleep and work (Figure 2).
In her study of the symbolic potential of these whale bones, Barton (1996)
As a key element of Thule culture, the entrance corridor is established.
These tunnels include additional storage and work space;
However, their main function is to protect residents from the destruction of the natural environment.
A hole or Kartak on the threshold between the entrance hall and the main room, expressed as coldtrap.
The inner understanding of local architectural science developed from these early prototypes can be observed in similar dwellings, such as umberland Sound qammaq in the early 20 th century. [
Figure 1 slightly][
Figure 2:
The Canadian snow house, known as the Ice House, provides a new experience for adapting to the bad local weather.
According to Reinhart (2003)
, Four kinds of convening and interrelated factors lead to the development of the snow House: In addition, although the appearance of the snow house is simple, it is a very complex shelter, according to the special requirements of the family, this can be expanded.
Although the kinship structure of Inuit in the entire Arctic region is not uniform, Peter Dawson\'s study \"spatial syntactic analysis of snowhouses in Inuit Centre\" (2002)
And examine the construction adaptation of complex social composition.
Dawson believes that \"the changes in the family structure and the behavioral directives that exist in the indigenous kinship system are reflected in the spatial structure of the snow house building.
\"It is worth noting that while the core family unit does exist in the Inuit community prior to settlement, given the high level of common interest, extended families usually share one residence
Social dependence.
Snow houses have also been transformed accordingly, reflecting the common ecological environment in winter villages.
A group of snow houses consists of one or more sleeping domes in which children live with their parents and their children.
Hunters who live with several wives and all his descendants or multiple families in order to share the food and cooperate fully in survival activities.
Divorce is allowed due to Nuyt culture, adoption is common, and gender roles are relatively unstable (
For example, a woman may become a hunter if she chooses)
The type of residence is adjusted accordingly.
As a result, one or more sleeping domes are connected to one main dome, which may be as high as 12 feet to 14 feet in diameter (3. 7 meters to 4. 3meters)(
Lee and Reinhart 2003).
As Peter Dawson (2002)
Given the adaptability of the igloo, the rigidity of the igloo-
Canadian-style housing provided in the Inuit community after World War II has had an important impact on community living arrangements and the culture of residence.
In the years after World War II, the government of Canada (GoC)
Improve the living conditions of Inuit people for humanitarian and political reasons.
Due to the lack of formal housing, the living conditions of the residents in the expanding settlements are getting worse and worse.
Sheds made of abandoned wood and abandoned packaging crates replace traditional snow houses and portable skin tents, which enable Inuit people to follow the reindeer herds that migrate throughout the summer.
These new homes are characterized by a lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation, prevalence of respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia, and extremely crowded living conditions (
National Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1960).
Observation results of testers (2006)
These informal accommodations may need to be more open during this time --
Evaluation of ideas;
However, since they are very different from the construction methods in the South, most are considered unqualified.
The government of Canada therefore considers the living conditions of the settled Inuit to be unacceptable and responds by developing large-scale housing projects.
Another major factor in the government\'s interest in developing housing policies in the eastern Arctic is the federal government\'s \"northern vision \".
In his survey of early housing policies, housing in the northwest: Post
War vision \"Robert Robson explains the need for the federal government to exercise Arctic sovereignty during the Cold War and to expand its interest in influence in the north, which is the main influencing factor for investing in Arctic housing. Arctic: at the beginning of the 20 th century, the legal status of Inuit has not yet been determined (
Test and Kulchyski, 1994).
Robson described the \"northerner vision\" as \"using the resource potential of northern Canada, after solving-
In the era of war, rationalize the northern government and modernize the northern infrastructure. Perhaps the most acute thing is to strengthen the typical urban relations in the north.
South experience.
\"Suppressing foreign culture through construction policies, whether or not intended ---
Supporting Anthony Ward (1996)
Theory of \"society\" architecture.
In \"social repression in design: architecture is war\", Ward claims that architecture is still \"nothing but society \".
\"From the early intervention, the prescription for illness
A suitable housing prototype provides an assimilation mechanism for the governing body.
Interest in creating housing types suitable for the northern climate and the economic constraints of Inuit families has led to the most innovative period in the history of public housing in the Arctic.
According to the National Ministry of Health and Welfare (1960)
: Ironically, architects and government officials failed to capture the elements that made the ice house suitable for the Arctic environment and culture when designing a dwelling that reflected the original residence.
A series of experimental devices have been designed to create cheap housing suitable for the Arctic climate, including a foam plastic ice house, a quonset style foam plastic House, adobe-
A frame tent with walls and a shed
Type of \"frame house.
However, despite good intentions, structural problems, including rapid deterioration of materials, high cost associated with production and poor ventilation, are considered to be the reason for abandoning these designs.
For example, the blue foam plastic used in the quonset style house \"is prone to super
Painting or other protection is therefore required \"(Dept.
National Health and Welfare, 1960)(Figure 3).
Of the seven units built in Povungnituk, northern Quebec, \"without exception, there is a high condensate on the inner wall, causing extreme discomfort and possibly illness --health. [. . . ]
There are serious deficiencies in the heat insulation, proper heating and ventilation of the house.
\"Given the design flaws associated with these units, it is difficult to imagine Inuit families living in these\" houses \"as part of a process to determine whether they are suitable for mass production.
Abandoned the experimental devices developed in early 1950, mainly because they did not meet the structural requirements, goc decided to reduce the experiment, applauded
The square house. [
Figure 3 slightly]
One of the logistical challenges facing the government of Canada is the short delivery and construction season.
The sea is ice-
Free two months a year.
In addition, all building materials must be shipped from the south with prefabricated components.
The construction time is also very short and lasts for two to three months.
The prototypes are therefore chosen because they are reasonably priced, easy to build, and truly believe that they will improve living conditions.
The first housing prototype delivered by the EskimoHousing loan project was quickly referred to as a \"Matchbox\" because of its small size \". These one-
Room sheds heated with oil-based elements exacerbate problems they are aiming to address, such as overcrowding, lack of service and inadequate ventilation.
To make matters worse, due to the seasonal nature of the fur trade and their continued involvement in the land,
Compared to wage employment, there are very few Inuit families that can afford to chase and heat these very small homes throughout the winter (Robson, 1995;
Thomas and Thompson, 1972).
Subsequently, the matchbox unit was replaced with 16 feet by \"RigidFrame\" a 16 feet (4. 88 meters by 4. 88 meters)
Units with slightly improved quality, built at a capital cost of $420 (Figure 4).
According to the National Ministry of Health and Welfare (1960)
In 1960, 125 units were built in 14 different Arcticcommunities.
Unlike snow houses, homes designed as part of the Northern housing initiative, whether in an uncoordinated style or a subsequent euro
Housing types in Canada-
Limited in size, limited to a given location.
Inuit can no longer decide on the composition of their family and accommodate the extended family because it cannot be expanded.
In addition, Inuit families have no control over the location of their \"home.
\"The emergence of public housing in the eastern Arctic, while improving living conditions within settlements, has irrevocably changed the local living culture and lifestyle. [
Figure 4 slightly]
While at the time of initial construction, the space provided would improve some of the small shack shackles of Inuit living in early settlements, the living conditions of these units were poor.
Unlike traditional snow houses, rigid frame units hardly allow light to penetrate through their small windows.
In addition, the lack of proper ventilation is a serious problem that causes the spread of respiratory diseases.
While they are highly efficient in heating, many Inuit families do not have the means to purchase fuel throughout the winter and/or are unable to pay the annual payments required to purchase these units.
Therefore, according to the Eskimo housing loan scheme, most of the 1,200 housing units distributed in the North will remain rental units (Robson1995).
Recognizing the shortage of rigid frame units delivered under the EskimoHousing loan program, \"on October 1965, the federal government approved the EskimoHousing rental housing program and 12.
Five million dollars allocated to three buildings
Bedroom for five years \"(
Report on the Eskimos housing education project in Canada, 2).
Housing originally delivered under the Eskimo housing loan program was re-delivered
As a rental inventory, the number is large, three-
The bedroom unit was built. The three-
The bedroom unit helps alleviate the housing shortage and is more suitable to meet the needs of the Inuit People\'s Congress families, which usually includes members of the extended family.
However, the design of these units also did not take into account the social organization and cultural activities of the family.
\"The core of wage labor, housing policy and income \"(2005)
Pamela Stern suggested, \"with the distribution of houses provided by the government, northern administrators take the autonomy of the core family for granted.
\"The units built in the Arctic in the 1960 s were designed according to the euro
The concept of Canada, including the first division between rooms.
The kitchen is sick.
Equipment and interior for the preparation of country food do not accommodate landBased on activities.
As described by Robson (1995)
Culturally inappropriate design, coupled with poor architectural practice, is the main problem of public housing in the north.
As Peter colings described (2005)
Throughout the 1960 s and 1970 s, \"Not only was the material used for the building of the house poor, but the design of the house was poor --
Both physically and culturally, it is suitable for the Arctic.
Thomas and Thompson in their 1972 criticisms of early housing prototypes and policies (1972)
Writing: neither the education program nor the rental housing program was successful, which did not disappoint policy makers, housing, especially for the Arctic, has been increasingly criticized for failing to address the harsh living conditions of Inuit.
According to Robson, the shift in public housing delivery in the late 1960 s and early 1970 s was largely criticized similar to Thomas and Thompson.
Robson said that in 1967, the Northwest Regional government revised the Eskimo housing rental plan in response to \"broader issues of community well-being\"being\" (Robson 1995).
Therefore, the territory purchase plan and lease purchase plan were launched in 1968 with the goal of \"improving [ing]
Living conditions of Inuit peopleing]
Provide adequate accommodation for all northerners \"(Robson 1995).
The next major policy change in Arctic public housing discipline is the establishment of the Northwest Region Housing Corporation in 1972, which also lays the foundation for housing policy in the eastern Arctic.
With the establishment of the Northwest Housing Company, the dawn of the \"modern era (NWTHC)
A series of projects have been launched to provide public housing for low-income residents in northern Canada.
Robson\'s analysis of what he called the \"Modern Times\" gives a comprehensive description of the policies that theNWTHC managed in 1970s and 80 years.
According to the author, \"the goal of NWTHC [. . . ]
Ensure that residents in the northwest have access to adequate affordable housing supplies.
\"The establishment of the Northwest region housing company has led to the restructuring of public housing delivery throughout the Northwest region (
Please note that the territory of Nunavut was not established in the eastern region at that time).
The policy of combining rental with house ownership was designed with relatively different objectives.
Therefore, the low-rent housing program attracts a large number of bachelor\'s degrees
Style apartments built in selected locations where work can be easily found.
Therefore, the economic center, including the Bay of Frobisher (Iqaluit)
The house building in Lake Baker reached the highest level.
It is not surprising that these houses fail to meet the housing needs of low-income people.
Income families (Robson 1995).
In addition, the emphasis on building a single-
Inuit bedroom units mean that in smaller communities that have not experienced economic growth, Inuit public housing is still out of reach.
So many people are faced with tough choices: either they can stay in smaller communities where hunting is more sustainable due to the small population or they can move to a larger center to find jobs and
According to Peter Collins (2005)
Transition from asemi
Nomadic culture has had a profound impact on the ability of the settled generation Inuit to continue to engage in traditional activities.
The pressure on wages-
Having and maintaining a housewife on an economic basis, many Inuit have to give up hunting, which takes an important commitment of time and money.
Collings believes that the disconnect from the generation of land continues to have a profound negative impact on the Inuit community throughout the Arctic region, it is also considered to play a key role in the spread of social issues in the Inuit community.
Study the Spatial considerations of the daily life of several Inuit families living in Dawson Nunavut Arviat (2003)
Summarizes the space configuration of the euro
Canadian style residential design-
Special emphasis on private space ---
Failure to meet the needs of families: Throughout the 1970 s to the 1980 s, affordable and adequate housing shortages continued.
For example, under the Ruraland remote housing program (1977-1983)
\"About 70% of theRRHP customers are in arrears \"(Robson 17).
In addition, the existing housing stock-
The original building was very poor ---
Renovation is in urgent need.
Peter Dawson analyzed the ethnographic observation of the Inuit family (2006)
Many Inuit families continue to use their houses in a traditional way.
Living environments designed to adapt around another culture tend to accelerate their deterioration, as they are not designed to accommodate the preparation of traditional food or public sleep arrangements.
The northwest region housing company has launched some maintenance projects, and one quarter of the company\'s budget is allocated to the maintenance of public housing. Robson (1995)
However, it is noted that \"the total amount of expenditure, when subdivided into each
Unit cost is just a nominal amount.
For example, from 1974 to 1975,
Unitrepair expenditure was $225.
\"Strive to address issues related to culturally appropriate housing, small residential areas, inadequate ventilation, unqualified construction materials, and overall inadequate prototypes of early social housing.
However, serious concerns related to the quality of housing remain.
For example, collages (2005)
Some housing-related concerns in the Inuit community of around 1978 are described: Unqualified public housing accounts for a large part of the number of existing housing in the Arctic community.
The sense of urgencyborn arising from a preliminary survey of existing Northern housing has led the Southern governing body to quickly make key design decisions in the event of little consultation with Inuit.
UnfriendlyArchitecture in Dawson (2008)
Refers to the tester (2006)
On the theory of excluding Inuit housing priorities: He went on to describe the restrictions associated with housing in the northerners, namely the high cost of labor and transport materials, planners are required to choose a design that is \"generic\" rather than \"culturally specific.
Therefore, the impact of poor housing quality continues to adversely affect the well
The existence of Inuit people
Although the local government has tried to correct the lack of adequate housing in the Arctic region, the housing delivered during 1970 has not been able to meet the climatic conditions and the cultural needs of Inuit people.
Conclusion due to the construction of poor quality public housing, which is unable to withstand the harsh Arctic climate of 1960 and 1970, there is an urgent need for renovation and replacement of housing.
Due to the lack of financial resources, many Inuit families continue to live in houses that do not meet their needs.
Therefore, excessive
Crowded, high incidence of infectious diseases, high pressure of life
Standard housing has to do with the struggle facing the inuit community today.
In addition, housing with insufficient land support --
Based on activities being positioned as having a profound impact on cultural well-beingbeing of Inuit.
Quote Brody, Hugh. 1975.
Land of the people: White and Eastern Arctic.
I\'m a colleague, Peter. 2005.
Housing Policy, ageing and life curriculum construction for Inuit communities in Canada.
Arctic Anthropology 42 (2):50-65. Dawson, Peter. 2003.
Review of the use of family space by Inuit families living in Nunavut Arviat.
Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation. --. 2003.
Studying the impact of the euro
Canadian architecture living in the Canadian Arctic region.
4 th International Symposium on Space Syntax, June 1719. London (UK): SpaceSyntax. Available: www. spacesyntax. net/SSS4. htm (
Visit 2008 February 13). --. 2006.
Look like the Inuit family: the relationship between \"house form\" and \"culture\" in northern Canada.
Inuit Studies 30 (2): 113-138. --. 2002.
Spatial syntactic analysis of snow house in Inuit center.
Journal of Anthropology & Archaeology 21: 464-480. --. 2008.
Unfriendly buildings: use observations of spatial behavior to design a culturally sustainable house in ArcticCanada, Canada.
Housing Research 23 (1): 113-138. Dept.
Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 1969.
Eskimos, Canada, housing education project report, June 1966-June 1968.
Ottawa: The government of Canada. Dept.
National Health and Welfare. 1960.
Housing and mortality in Eskimo
Ottawa: The government of Canada. Dept.
Natural Resources. 2006.
Atlas of Canada: Nunavut
Government of Canada.
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Inuit housing action plan.
Inuit tarpirist, Canada2001.
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Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Jones, Bruce. 2009.
Free maps of the United States and the world. www.
Map of Freeusandworld. com (
10, 2010)
Lee, Molly and Gregory Reinhart2003.
Eskimo architecture: the dwelling and structure of the early historical period.
Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press. Patton, A. Katherine. 1996.
The ideological dimension of the use of the whale bone in the Torre winter room.
Montreal: University of McGill.
Robson, Robert. 1995.
Housing in northwest China: PostWar Vision.
City History Review 24 (1): 3-20. Spencer, R. F. 1959.
Eskimo, Northern Alaska: Ecological and Social Studies.
The Smithsonian Institution of the American Bureau of nationalities, Bulletin 17, Washington. Stern, Pamela. 2005.
The core of wage labor, housing policy and Inuit families.
Arctic Anthropology 42 (2): 66-81. Tester, F. 2006.
Iglurjuaq\'s phone number
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Lincoln and London: University of NEAs Press. Tester, F. and P. Kulchyski. 1994. Tammarniit (mistakes)
: Immigrants from the Arctic region of eastern Canada.
Vancouver: UBC Press. Thomas, D. K and C. T. Thompson. 1972.
With the change of planning culture, the housing of Eskimo.
Notes on Social Science 4.
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