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Mountain Transformed

by:COSCO     2019-08-14
Beer cans used to lie at the bottom of Lake Ling.
Mark Smith remembers very well: 20-year-
Ancient Olympia flattops, their shiny golden font is preserved in crystal clear cold water.
He remembers ten.
Rainbow trout in inches: Planted for tourists.
He remembered a shipwreck at the YMCA camp, and the bow was placed on an underwater stump.
A teenager began diving under the shadow of the Holy Mountain.
Hailens, he remembers that the lake was 1,300 feet above the top of the volcano before the eruption in May 1980, with mud, ash and melted snow piles of more than 3 billion cubic IC yards.
Before the lake was twice as big but half deep.
Before almost all the evidence of life, the cottage, the road, the camp and the cottage were destroyed.
Before the lake turns into a smelly soup, there is no oxygen, covered by floating trunks torn off the landscape.
Smith remembers most clearly what he called the \"petrified\" forest: a ghostly stand made up of sunken firs without branches, standing upright and buried dozens of yards under the water.
Before the mountain exploded, the underwater forest was a mystery to him.
Then it is perfectly reasonable.
Trees are evidence of past outbreaks. Lake Ling has been in the sea of fire.
30 years later, Linghu opened a new mystery: How did the fish come from, now twice as many as before?
Rainbow burst, reproduce?
Everyone has a theory.
Smith, who runs an eco-park resort on the edge of the volcano monument, thinks Trout are St from smaller, higher.
In the flood year of the lake.
But that Lake is only Lake McKinna, and the fish in the lake is a rainbow.
Bob Lucas, a biologist at the Department of Fish and Wildlife in Washington, thinks someone has planted them illegally.
In the late 1990 s, his family received an anonymous phone call, which seemed to confirm: \"I stored the fish.
A preliminary genetic test by forest services ecologist Charlie criafulli also showed that Trout did not start from the previous
The population of volcanic eruptions, but he has given up figuring out their origins.
\"There are as many stories as the fish,\" he said. \"All the stories started, \'I know someone put those fish there.
The important question for him is not how they arrived, but how they got so big.
On the occasion of the 30 th anniversary of the volcanic eruption in May 18, one of the only things that Linghu Trout was sure of was that they gave everyone the eco-activists, scientists, fishermen, members of Congress, Rangers, and other things to argue about.
Mark Smith grew up by the lake and his family ran down from the hut owned by Harry Truman, the famous Grumpy 83-year-
The old man with a common name with the president was one of the 57 victims of the eruption.
Smith was fishing there when he was a child.
To do so today, he must break the law.
He\'s not saying he has, but if I want to join him, he\'s very familiar with where poachers can sneak in. \"We were lost!
He shouted and practiced his alibi.
\"We started fishing as soon as we saw this! \" The 2,700-
Lake acre is now located in the center of a limited research area, which accounts for about 110,000-acre Mount St.
The hailens national volcano monument, set up by Congress in 1982, \"protects geological, ecological and cultural resources in the most natural state possible\", allowing the main natural geological forces and ecological performances to continue unimpeded.
\"The explosion zone is mostly closed to the public, and this part has become one of the greatest experiments on our planet.
From 2004 to 2008, the volcano returned to life, spewing up to 30,000 feet of steam and ash into the sky, and growing a new lava dome in the crater, attracting tourists and geologists.
But many of the greatest insights in the region come from the field of ecology.
As a natural laboratory for studying the regeneration of ecosystems, the explosion area is not equal in size.
\"This is the most thoroughly studied large --
\"Forest interference in the world,\" says criafulli, from molecules to ecosystems, bacteria to mammals, from almost every angle, almost every scale, is being studied, will be Geothermal
Almost every day, callers ask about St. \'s classes. Helens.
One woman is interested in the fire lizard and the other is interested in the toad.
Officials in Alaska and Chile want to know what will happen after their own volcano.
A key lesson is the \"biological heritage\" that survived the explosion due to snow, terrain or luck-fallen trees, roots buried underground, seeds, hamster, Wenchang
Ecologists believe that rebirth will occur from the outside as species from border areas invade and explode areas.
But the recovery comes from.
Starting from criafulli, a plant found on 3,750-barren land in 1981
On an acre of vast land known as the pumice plain, the purple prairie lupines became the first color in a sterile gray world.
In life, they are the food of nutrition plants, insects, the habitat of mice and mice;
In death, they and the creatures they attract enrich the ash and allow other species to settle.
The explosion area began to bloom gradually.
From a broad perspective, you will find that humans are also part of the Saints.
Hailens experiment
What fascinated the country 30 years ago was not just the scale of the explosion, but it happened to us, to the people we understand, to the landscape we love.
Now, with the recovery of nature and the reduction of people\'s memory, budget and number of tourists, human beings become restless.
It is said that the monument should be dug from the forest authority and built into a national park.
The others heard two stories.
Foot trout, wondering why the Spirit Lake is still closedlimits.
Last spring, before the Senate stalled, the Washington state House passed a bill restricting fishing, passed 95-1.
Some locals complain that it is time to open the restricted area and 30 years of research is enough.
None of this should surprise us.
Even on the human scale
Clarence is an ecosystem that tries to find balance.
What I remember when I was swimming in Linghu was not a sunken forest, but an underwater jungle.
In last August, I was behind criafulli in a two-wheeled car.
Along the driveway of the Wind Ridge, through a damaged door protected by a temporary chain, \"you will think there is enough money to buy a new damn door, \"criafulli said the diagonal Jeep trail into the restricted area.
On the edge of the pumice plain, we started twoand-a-half-
Lean 52 miles walkyear-
Thousands of times old.
His ponytail swings with each step.
He talks about ecology almost continuously, and after 30 years in the blast area, his New York accent is still clearly visible.
Behind us was a snow-free, gray volcano whose north wall collapsed and the crater was exposed.
The front is the lake. The water is calm.
The \"raft\" covers five months, which is the moving quality of thousands of floating logs.
Along the trail are fir saplings, fan beans, Indian brushes, moon-foot-
The tall bushes of the Willows and alder trees, by the stream, droves of toads and tree frogs.
By the lake, we wore warm wool overalls called the rabbit suit by Krissa welfare, dry suits, masks and floating suits, and a Zodiac raft heading for Duck Bay.
And into the cold water.
The first surprise is the color: bright yellow and green, electricity in the sun, the world except the monotonous pumice plain.
They belong to aquatic plants, stretching 10 feet from the lake bed to the water surface, and are a strong vinelike aquatic plant.
Moss lumps are suspended above the silt.
I have fish everywhere, Hook.
They are all 20 or more inches.
I followed them.
They were not alarmed.
I noticed that the sunken jungle was only in the shoal.
Fish and fish are like this in deeper water.
Like many subalpine lakes, Linghu had no productivity and nutrition before the eruption --
Poor, the water is clear and light.
When the top of the volcano slides into the volcano at a speed of 150 miles per hour, it is blocked by criafulli\'s term \"burning forest composition\"-the organic material burned in the explosion.
The water is heated to the body temperature, filled with dissolved carbon, manganese, iron and lead.
Visibility rose from 30 feet to 6 inch.
Bacteria breed in large quantities.
The first scientists to collect water samples fell ill due to unexplained diseases.
Rapid reproduction of microorganisms: aerobic bacteria that quickly exhaust all oxygen;
No required stunt show; then nitrogen-
Consuming bacteria;
It is then formed from methane and heavy metals.
Criafulli said that in 18 months, the spiritual Lake was dominated by chemistry, the home of \"hundreds of millions of bacteria per milliliters.
In the end, the microorganisms consumed too much, they began to die, streams and snow melt in, and the water was cleaned up.
Once the light penetrates through the lake, algae and other plankton settle down, followed by plankton that make a living on plankton, followed by aquatic insects and amphibians.
By the beginning of 1990, large aquatic plants grew in ideal trout habitats that did not exist before the eruption.
On tiny mid worms and freshwater snails, the Rainbow reached a record 5 pounds in two or three years. The post-
The erupting Lake follows the pattern that criafulli has seen many times in the blast zone.
New organisms have settled in the original environment and have achieved great success, but have been burned or inspected by predators, parasites or competitors.
This is the second Revelation of St.
Clarence: when there is a blank space, ecological succession is a cycle of prosperity and depression.
The colorful Spirit Lake is overflowing.
When a tadpole dies like a frog on a pumice plain, when an insect hatched in a lake is deposited in volcanic ash, their nutrients are transferred to land.
Slowly, this process has caused everything to disappear from the volcanic eruption.
Criafulli said: \"Before the eruption of the volcano, the land environment was super productive, and there were a lot of nutrients and carbon combined in the old environment. growth forest.
In contrast, the lake is poor.
They turned over after the volcano erupted. flopped.
\"Now, the scenery is back to Green from gray, and the lake is becoming more and more like itself before.
At 20 inch and a half, the rainbow I saw was as big as the rainbow I caught fishing in the Pacific Northwest all my life, but the fish was as big as it was, becoming more and more like myself before
Nine years after criafulli started labeling them, either because the yield of Lake Ling is getting lower or because there are too many trout fighting for the same amount of food now, either the two and their average weight is reduced by half.
Some flying fishermen see the changes that are taking place in the spiritual Lake as a problem of overpopulation and use themselves as a solution.
There\'s a world-
\"Class fisheries have not yet been developed and citizens have the right to fish,\" Denny Way told me . \".
President Clark-
Skamania flyclub, who proposes to open lake spirit before Trout shrink: ten catchesand-
One day a week, fly fishermen and trained owners are released.
At the same time, scientists have noticed that more than a dozen adjacent lakes are open to fishing, but the number of visitors is insufficient. mentally, the danger is not a number, but a precedent: ten fishermen or hundreds of fishermen, the door is open.
The argument is deeper about fish in name: What should the monument be?
Problems are everywhere.
If, in the twenty years after the eruption, there were five visitor centres, hundreds of miles of roads, and millions of visitors, a bust would appear in today\'s monument.
In 2007, with the budget shrinking, the largest center, cold water Ridge, was closed, and the exhibition focus of the center was Bio-Recovery.
There are only two full west-
Time to explain the tour;
There is only one south and east.
The life of the monument
The support system is a volunteer from St Hill, a non-profit organization.
The Clarence Institute, seasonal staff and interns.
About $ 70%. 8-
The cost of the user is a million entertainment budget.
The rest is related to Gifford Pinshaw National Forest Park, where funds are increasingly used for fire fighting.
Despite the alarming statistics, another victim of the budget crisis-the monument staff and business owners like Mark Smith agreed that visits were far from reaching the peak of 1980 and 90.
25 of the people who come now are foreigners, camping or lodging in a nearby cabin.
Americans tend to create a day
Drive along the Linghu Memorial Road, past the closed Cold Water Center, and return to Interstate 5.
Some hope for the Holy Mountain
Hailens National Park, with congressional funding, accommodation and more money for more science.
Funds began to flow, with federal stimulus spending exceeding $6 million last year, plus $163,000.
The Clarence College holds an exhibition at the end of the Memorial Highway in lake spirit.
The 30 th anniversary means new interest.
\"In my holy.
\"I\'m trying to make people realize that the volcano is not static,\" says former St. Smith of the national park protection association.
Helens ranger is now pushing the status of the park.
\"I will raise an etching sketch and say the monument is like this one.
The power of nature controls a knob.
There is another public.
\"In the bigger story of St.
Hailens, the park-to-monument is a highlight in history, \"said Monument staff scientist Peter Frenzen, who started with criafulli in the weeks after the eruption.
\"Entering Lake spirit is a highlight in history.
\"Those who have been in the blast zone for 30 years have seen the beginning of a more profound process.
Breakthrough is no longer a miracle, but the pace of change is accelerating and the scale is expanding.
There is something close to wisdom, not eureka moments.
\"Right now, the pumice plain is like a runaway horse,\" says criafulli . \".
\"Individual plots do not solve the problem of evolution.
\"He plans to investigate through satellite and aircraft tools that can see big pictures when pixels fill up.
\"We are going wide.
He said: \"The scale of bigeography.
\"This is the next border.
\"It was another sunny day last summer, and I was hiking through the pumice plain again, and this time I recruited criafulli with three young scientists to investigate the spiritual Lake.
Our goal is to create the first ecosystem.
Scale map of aquatic environment-patch of plant life, underwater Hill falling from top of volcano, fish in water column.
Echo depth gauge stuck on the starboard side of our ship, our motor is idling, we watch the log raft warily and if we crawl forward it may cut off on the wrong side of the LakeSt.
The rest is full of the horizon.
On the digital display, scientists point to a strange vertical hanging trout or shipwreck.
We don\'t know which data is until it reaches the lab.
So they took me to a relatively shallow place, just south of harmony falls, where they knew what they were looking.
When I stared at the Clear Lake of Linghu, I also knew.
Thirty years after the eruption, I saw what Mark Smith saw: a petrified forest.
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