R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER DEAD; FUTURIST BUILT GEODESIC DOME
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Buckminster Fuller of the future
It looks like the most famous inventor is the father of the Earth dome, who died of a heart attack yesterday when visiting his wife at the Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles.
He is 87 years old.
As he himself said, with his always cheerful unmodesty, Sir
Fuller is an engineer, inventor, mathematician, architect, cartographer, philosopher, poet, Cosmist, integrated designer and choreographer.
\"He is also a thorough original, and he has been considered a madman for many years.
But by the 1950s, he stubbornly refused to give up his belief that through technology, \"man can do whatever he needs to do,\" and \"man can do miracles,\" he attracted
He is in his 70 s.
Fuller flies tens of thousands of miles a year for university lectures, some of which last five or six hours.
He is very popular among young people and he advises young people to \"change the environment, not try to change people \".
\"Advertising\" \"The world of youth\", as he said \"Modern Youth\", he listened attentively when he was a little messy, clumsy Mr. building.
He waved his arms excitedly and his eyes flashed behind his thick glasses, telling his dream of a better tomorrow.
He was called naive by detractorsadtisement, who gave the young man this advice: \"bite your tongue.
Put a coal slag in your eyes.
You can\'t feel anything when you feel good.
He ignored the critics who called him a narcissist, an \"inspired child\", and a naive romantic, who chattered to claim that through technology and planning, humans can become superhuman.
He would say, \"all the population on earth can live in a compact, well-designed Haiti and comfortable life on the British Isles . \". \'\'Mr.
A mile Fuller envisioned.
High floating cities that can accommodate thousands of people in environments without air pollution and noise. Mid-
He predicted that Manhattan would one day be covered by a huge plastic dome three miles in diameter.
He acknowledged that some of the ideas are now viable and these are future projects, but the independent architect said that in some of the other ideas, timidity and lack of imagination prevented some more comprehensive ideas such as the proposed 646 mu of 1964-
65 New York International Aviation Expo-
Although he has neither formal training for architects nor a license for architects, and his blueprint for the dome of the ground wire must be signed by a licensed colleague, he is well received by architects and designers.
Nathaniel Owings from Skidmore, Owings and Merrill call him the most creative person in our field.
When designing Dymaxion House, he was determined to turn his new thinking to the construction industry he was most familiar with, and his first design was Dymaxion House.
Its room is hung on the central mast and the exterior wall is continuous glass.
It can move easily, independent of its position.
The house is equipped with an automatic vacuum cleaner and a shower that can be re-filtered for 10 minutes with a quart of water.
A department store in Chicago showed the working model of the house. In May 1928 Mr.
Fuller offered to transfer the full ownership of his patents to the American Institute of Architects, which covered Dymaxion house.
The Institute rejected the proposal and adopted a resolution at its annual meeting on 1929 condemning all prefabricated building concepts: \"No matter. I. A.
Establish yourself on the record compared to any pea --in-a-pod-
Like a reproducible design. \'\' Mr.
There is no doubt that Fuller recalled that in 1970, when the Institute awarded him a gold medal for his contribution to the building, he refused with some confusion.
Fuller energy-saving multi-functional three-tier of advertisentree prototype
Wheel cars were produced between 1933 and 1935.
Using the standard 90-1, the car can turn on its own length and reach a speed of 120 miles per hour
In Chicago, 1935 cars collided with a car, both of which turned over.
When the reporter arrived, another car belonging to a municipal government official had been towed away.
The driver of the Dymaxion car was killed in the \"three-
The newspaper report did not mention the involvement of another car.
Even after the fact was confirmed a few weeks later, on these three-
Wheel cars are still cool and never put into production.
He said the new metal brakes have been drum up from the funds.
Fuller went to work for Phelps.
Dodge Company for R & D and product development.
He designed a new type of non-ferrous metal. to-
Eliminate the metal brake drums that brake \"grab\" and \"fail\" and halve the necessary deceleration time of the existing brake assembly.
Bronze brakes establish the metallurgical principle of disc brakes used by World War II bombers. In 1943 Mr.
Fuller designed the Dymaxion Airocean World Map, the first map system to obtain a US patent.
This was his first invention and won great interest from other scientists.
It shows the entire surface of the Earth in a flat view without visible distortion on other maps. Mr.
Fuller\'s Wichita House, a new version of the Dymaxion cycle unit, was put into prototype production in 1944, when the federal government agreed to release high
Priority Development of aluminum alloy.
It is hoped that these houses will be mass-produced for $6,600 each. It will provide jobs for workers who no longer need to build fighter jets and serve as a stopgap for post-war housing shortages.
But the construction industry did not show interest, and Wichita\'s house was abandoned.
The dome of the patented wire DomeThe, sir.
Fuller was patented in 1947 and the discovery brought him fame and wealth.
For some time, all the Dome of the ground wire was made by two of his companies, the ground wire company.
But a few years ago, he began authorizing others to make and assemble the dome under his patent.
About 1970 250 companies pay 5% commission per ball. Mr.
Fuller\'s first commercial client for the dome was Ford Motor, which installed 93-
Plastic and aluminum shells on circular buildings in Dearborn, Michigan. , in 1952.
In 1955, he began production of the ground wire \"radar\" to accommodate the listening equipment of the Air Force\'s distant warning line 3,000-
A mile-long radio device along the edge of Canada and northern Alaska.
As of 1970, the Fuller dome has built more than 4,000 domes around the world.
They are small in size living units such as Mr.
Fuller\'s plywood home, ritdale, is ill.
A large tank maintenance shed in Baton Rouge, Los Angeles.
, 384 feet in diameter, without an internal column.
Advertising began in 1956, when it commissioned a Dome exhibition at an international fair in Kabul, Afghanistan, the US Department of Commerce used a Fuller dome in a similar exhibition in Poznan, Poland;
Islamabad, Turkey; Madras, India;
Tokyo and other cities.
Khrushchev was very enthusiastic when he was in Nikita.
Soviet Prime Minister Khrushchev first saw Khrushchev.
Fuller designed the dome for the American National Exhibition in Moscow in 1959, and he couldn\'t hold back his enthusiasm.
\"This dome is very interesting, very good and worth copying many times in the Soviet Union,\" he said . \".
Call him \"j\"
Mr. Buckingham Fuller.
Khrushchev said he should come here to tell our engineers about his invention.
The State Council responded quickly. Mr.
Fuller was flown to Moscow to give a lecture under the film.
His own roof has a patterned grid.
One of the most magnificent domes is by Henry J.
As a concert hall in Honolulu. Mr.
Kaiser was eager to see it erected, but was delayed for a day in San Francisco and arrived in Hawaii to find the Dome finished;
It only took 22 hours.
That night, the ground wire auditorium arranged a concert for 1,832 spectators. Best-
The most famous and admirable of the Fuller dome is the dome located at the US pavilion at the 67 World Expo in Montreal;
At the end of the World Expo, it was handed over to the government of Canada.
Beautiful and colorful, is also the most spectacular building on the playground.
With the beating and change of \"The Sky breaking bubble,
Fuller called it a structure 200 feet high and 250 feet in diameter. It encloses 6.
7 milion cubic feet, roughly the same as the seoer building in New York.
According to natural light, this very lightweight steel skeleton covers the skin of 2,000 different proportions of acrylic plastic hexagon, which seems to beat and change color, and as a result, from one angle to another, bubbles look different all day.
You can see the sky from inside.
The structure of the more complete ground wire dome is basically a sphere consisting of four-sided pyramid shapes, including the bottom of what is called the tetrahedrons.
The design principle contains two mathematical truths :(1)
A sphere of all geometric shapes, enclosing the most space with the least surface, and with the strongest pressure on the interior, and (2)
In the smallest space, this is surrounded by the most superficial space on all sides, and is the best under external pressure.
Therefore, the design, not the weight, brings great power to the dome.
In the field of thought, people who claim to be \"comprehensive thinkers\" and long-term
The rejected Malthus Huaining River rejected Malthus\'s concept that humans are in danger of breeding themselves out of control and ultimately he is unable to feed himself.
In an interview with the article in 1970, he called those who warned of the world\'s population explosion \"ignorant \".
He said that by 1985, the world\'s population will be stable without a radical birth control plan.
\"In addition, human beings have the ability to feed themselves forever, feed themselves and live in work-free leisure through appropriate planning and utilization of natural resources. \'\'Mr.
Fuller did not approve of modern methods of education because they had learned very little.
\"Every child is born with genius,\" he said . \"
\"From watching many babies grow up, I firmly believe that all mankind is born to be genius, and then become no longer a genius.
I used it very quickly due to adverse circumstances and frustration with all their extraordinary buildings-In terms of ability
\"Considering that a word would be said when expressing his thoughts, Sir
Fuller often uses convincing words and phrases such as \"livingry\" and \"killin @ gry\" and \"toing and froing\" because he says there are no existing words to come
His prose is often difficult to understand.
An example is a paragraph in his 1949 article \"general thinking\" designed to explain the development of natural forms: \"circular wave enhancement --
The only parent and parent-
Internal impression of overlapping between periodic and periodic interferencestructuring-by-
Accumulation, thereby pre-arranging the internal angle of the original rotation, the tendency to expand on the bred seeds of the external periodic secretionin then inside-out pulsation-
Reverse, we call it a regenerative birth.
However, he sometimes makes a fresh, clear statement.
\"We are frustrated that we have to use outdated organizations and technologies,\" he said . \".
\"From a metaphorical point of view, we are prisoners of metaphor.
Fuller did not slow down by 1970.
He spent six weeks of summer on a small island in Maine, but he continues, except for two months of teaching at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, he preached the optimistic gospel of human salvation to the world.
In 1970, he also applied for a patent for a new invention.
\"My thoughts went through an emergency process in an emergency,\" he said . \".
\"They were accepted when they were badly needed.
So I just invented it, and then wait until the human needs what I invented. \'\'Mr.
Fuller\'s wife, former Anne Hewlett, survived;
Ruth Scott, head of care at Good Samaritan Hospital, said her daughter Allegra and grandson Jamie Snyder.
Miss Scott said the family will announce the funeral plan sometime today.
A version of this obituary was printed on page 1001001 of the National edition on July 2, 1983 with the title: R.
Fuller is dead.
The futurist built the Dome of the ground wire.